Balochistan or Baluchistan (Balochi: بلوچستان, lit. Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region on the Iranian plateau in south-western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Sea.

Balochistan stretches across southwestern Pakistan, southeastern Iran, and a small section of southwestern Afghanistan. The southern part of Balochistan is known by its historical name Makran. The main Languages spoken in Balochistan are Balochi and Pashto. Balochistan is named after the native Baloch tribes who inhabit the region and use Balochi as their native language. Brahui is spoken by the Brahui people. Pashto is spoken by the Pashtun people. Punjabi and Sindhi languages are also spoken as first language in Pakistani Balouchistan and related version Hindki in Afghanistan. Urdu is used as second language in Pakistan. Persian is used as second languages in Iran and Afghanistan.